Courses > Semester 3

Anatomy and Morphology of Plants

The plant Cell

Cells and tissues: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, epidermis, vascular tissues (xylem, phloem), periderm, meristems, secretory structures
Stem: external structure, primary growth, secondary growth, stem modifications
Leaf: external structure, gymnosperm leaf, angiosperm leaf, growth and development, abscission, leaf modifications
Root: external structure, primary growth, transition between the vascular systems of the root and shoot, root modifications, mycorrhiza and nodules
Flower: external structure, gymnosperm flower, angiosperm flower, pollination, fertilization
Fruit: simple, aggregate and multiple fruits
Seed: external structure, gymnosperm seed, angiosperm seed, embryogenesis, endosperm, seed dispersal


Course description

Zoology provides a systematic investigation of the major animal groups along with protistan. Students will be able to discuss and correctly apply evolutionary, taxonomic, anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and ecological characteristics which exist within each of these groups.


Laboratory work which requires dissection is an integral and required part of this course. Your presence and participation in the laboratory is required. There are no facilities to make up missed laboratory work and no option for independent work.

Course objectives

In this course you will learn the systematic relationships of animals using evolutionary advances in form and function as criteria. These comparisons will establish an organized array of facts and descriptions which can be used to: (1) determine where each animal group fits evolutionarily in the animal kingdom; (2) place animals in classification schemes; (3) show which characteristics interrelate and interconnect all animals; (4) demonstrate how changes in animal structure provide opportunities for adaptation to new or existing environmental conditions; (5) evaluate the general magnitude of animal evolution over time; (6) develop a historical perspective of animals; and (7) illustrate how different animal structures and functions are complimentary.

Cell Biology

  1. Membrane Structure
  2. Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Ionic Basis of Membrane Excitability
  3. Intracellular Compartements and Protein Sorting
  4. Vesicular Traffic in the Secretory and Endocytic Pathways
  5. The Cell Nucleus and Chromosome Organisation
  6. Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
  7. The Cytoskeleton
  8. The Cell-Division Cycle
  9. The Mechanisms of Cell Division
  10. Cell Junctions, Cell Adhesion and the Extracellular Matrix
  11. Cell Signaling

Biochemistry I

Proteins and enzymes

Structure function and methods of protein analysis-Enzyme kinetics and inhibitors

Characteristic structures in Biochemistry

Carbohydrates – Biological Membranes


Introduction to metabolism – Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis - Citric acid Cycle - Oxidative phosphorylation - The Pentose Phosphate pathway – Glycogen metabolism – Fatty acid metabolism - Aminoacid catabolism and the urea cycle

Physical Chemistry of Biological Systems

Conservation of Energy

Work, Heat


1st Law of Thermodynamics (Internal Energy, Enthalpy)
2nd Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy)
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Reactions (Gibbs Energy)

Chemical Equilibrium

Equilibrium and Gibbs Energy
Equilibrium Constant
Biochemical Standard Gibbs Energy


Galvanic Cells
Standard Electrode Potentials
Ionic Strength

Equilibrium between Phases

Chemical Potential
Equilibrium of Dialysis
Surfaces, Membranes
Surface Tension
Colligative Properties
Molecular Weight Determination

Chemical Kinetics

Rate Law
Zero-order Reactions
First-order Reactions
Second-order Reactions
Parallel Reactions
Consecutive Reactions

Enzyme Kinetics

Equations of Enzyme Kinetics
Enzyme Inhibition


Absorption and Emission of Radiation
Beer's Law
Ultraviolet Spectra
Polarized Light, Optical Rotation
Optical Rotatory Dispersion
Circular Dichroism
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance