Courses > Semester 7 - Elective courses

Elective courses of Semester 5 plus the following courses:

Enzyme Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology


  • Βiotechnological Enzymes –General characteristics
  • Production and purification of enzymes
  • Biocatalysis in non-conventional media
  • Factors affecting catalytic behaviour of enzymes
  • General principles of some catalytic mechanisms
  • Enzyme engineering
  • Molecular design of enzymes
  • Structural analysis of enzymes
  • Biocatalysis and White Biotechnology-Green bioprocesses
  • Application of enzymes in food and pharmaceutical industries
  • Biocatalysis in Environmental and Agricultural Biotechnology
  • Introduction in Nanobiotechnology
  • Visualization at the Nanoscale
  • Nanoparticles and Their Uses
  • Nanoparticles for Labeling
  • Nanoparticles for Delivery of Drugs
  • Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy
  • Nanotubes
  • Nanobiocatalysis

Laboratory exercises

  • Molecular modelling of enzymes
  • Methods for determination of enzyme activity
  • Immobilization of enzymes onto nanotubes
  • Experimental determination of enzyme thermostability
  • Biocatalysis in non-conventional media Enantiomeric resolution
  • Determination of enzymes structures in nanodroplets with spectroscopic techniques
  • Preparation and application of cross-linked enzyme aggregates
  • Use the Expasy data base for the investigation of structural characteristics of enzymes

From Genome to Proteome

1. Genome Projects

Foreward: Why sequencing whole genomes?

1.1. Mapping strategies
1.2. Human genomic landscape
1.3. Evolution of the genome

2. Identification of genes and gene products

Foreward: How many genes in human?

2.1. Gene discovery – Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)
2.2. Transcriptome analysis – DNA microarrays
2.3. Gene families

3. Proteome analysis

Foreward: Why Proteomics?

3.1. Mapping the proteome - 2-D Electrophoresis, Mass Spectrometry
3.2. Protein structures and structure-function analysis
3.3. Protein-protein interactions - 2-hybrid systems

4. Biomedical applications

Foreward: What is of interest in the mapping of genetic polymorphisms?

4.1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) - Genotyping
4.2. On the molecular mechanisms and genes of human diseases
4.3. Strategies of prognostics and therapy – Current perspectives

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Neurotransmitters and Behavior (Brain Function)

A. Basic aspects of Neurotransmitter function

  1. An overview of neurotransmitters systems and function
  2. Synaptic function (fast and slow events, ion channels and 2nd messengers, methodology)
  3. Neurotransmitter receptors (classification, structural analysis)
  4. Neurotransmitter release (mechanisms, measurement, control)

B. Neurotransmitters and Synaptic transmission, including, location, pathways, neurochemistry, receptors, effects, and drug modification

  1. Acetylcholine
  2. Dopamine
  3. Amino acids: excitatory
  4. Amino acids: inhibitory
  5. Noradrenaline
  6. 5-Hydroxytryptamine
  7. Peptides
  8. Other transmitters and mediators

C. Neurotransmitters in drug action and Disease states

The possible role of different neurotransmitters in the aetiology of disease states and the mechanism of action of clinically effective drugs, including symptoms, therapy and animal models.

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease
  2. Diseases of the Basal ganglia (Parkinson’s)
  3. The Epilepsies
  4. Depression & Anxiety
  5. Pain and Analgesia

D. Neurotransmitters and Behavior

  1. Sleep and Waking
  2. Drug Dependence and Abuse

Suggested Textbooks

  1. "Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function", edited by RA Webster, 2001, Published by J Wiley & Sons Ltd
  2. "The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology, by JR Cooper, FE Bloom & RH Roth, 8th edition, 2002, published by Oxford University Press

Microbial Genetics


Prokaryotic DNA metabolism.

Replication of circular and linear DNA.

Genetic exchange.

Plasmids. Conjugative and mobilizable transposable elements. Transformation. Conjugation. Approach of bacteria that lack natural systems of genetic transmission.

Quorum sensing in bacteria.

Molecular mechanisms. The genetics of quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Endospore formation.

Bacillus subtilis: an example of cellular differentiation in bacteria.

Extremophile bacteria.

General characteristics. Examples of genetic regulation. Applications.

Genetics of bacteriophages.

Bacteriophage λ. Single-stranded DNA phages.

Addictive Substances

Elective subject (in conjunction with the medical students)


Marios Marselos, MD, PhD, Professor of Pharmacology

Topics discussed and evaluated by an exam at the end of the course

  1. General principles of drug abuse
  2. Definition of terminology
  3. History, Abuse profile, Pharmacology and toxicity
  4. Central depressants
  5. Opiates
  6. Stimulants
  7. Cannabis
  8. Nicotine
  9. Psychedelics
  10. Drugs and society, Legal issues
  11. Projection of the movie "Trainspotting" and discussion

Aquatic Microorganisms: From Genome to Ecosystem

Molecular Ecology and Conservation Genetics

Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine