Courses > Semester 5

Animal Physiology Ι

Course Contents

(the mammal model used is the Human)

  1. A framework for Human Physiology
  2. Movement of molecules across cell membranes (Diffusion, Mediated Transport systems. Osmosis, Endocytosis & Exocytosis, Epithelial Transport)
  3. Homeostatic Control Systems (characteristics, components, intercellular chemical messengers, Processes related to Homeostasis)
  4. Mechanisms by which chemical messengers control cells (receptors, Signal transduction pathways)
  5. Neural control mechanisms (Neural Tissue, Membrane potentials, Synapses, Structure of the nervous system)
  6. The sensory systems (General Principles, Somatic sensation, Vision, Hearing, Vestibular System, Chemical Senses)
  7. Hormonal Control Systems (Hormone Structures & Synthesis, Transport, Metabolism and Excretion, Mechanisms of action, Inputs that Control Hormone Secretion, Control Systems involving the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary, Candidate Hormones, Types of Endocrine Disorders)
  8. Skeletal Muscle (Structure, Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction, Mechanics of Single Fiber Contraction, Energy Metabolism, Types of Contraction)
  9. Smooth Muscle (Structure, Contraction and its Control)
  10. Control of Body Movement (Motor Control Hierarchy, Local Control of Motor Neurons, Brain Motor Centers, Muscle tone, Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance, Walking)
  11. Consciousness and Behavior (States of Consciousness, Conscious Experiences, Motivation and Emotion, Altered States of Consciousness, Learning and Memory, Cerebral Dominance and Language)

[13-14 3hr lectures]

Laboratory Exercises

  1. Introduction to scientific reports – papers (contents, writing of, publication process, Short communications, full articles, reviews) Assignment of a short communication analysis per 3-student group (term paper).
  2. Interactive physiology software. A. Fluids and electrolytes
  3. Interactive physiology software. B. Excitable membranes. Resting and action potentials
  4. Interactive physiology software. C. Synaptic transmission. Neurotransmitters
  5. Action potential of the frog's sciatic nerve
  6. Methodology of learning experiments.
    A. Operant conditioning in a Planarian using Y-maze
  7. Methodology of learning experiments.
    B. Processing data from Y-maze experiments using SPSS software
  8. Brain function. A. The basic rhythms of electroencephalogram
  9. Brain function. B. Functional asymmetry of α-rhythm in the frontal cortex

[Each exercise lasts 3hrs]

Course books

Vander, Sherman, Luciano, Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function, 8th Ed., McGraw Hill, Chapters 6-13.

[This is the principal textbook, several other Physiology books are suggested for certain topics]

Molecular Biology

A) Theory

Introduction: The central dogma of molecular biology. The genetic code: experiments, which led to the discovery of the genetic code. Universality and deviations from the genetic code. Organisation of cellular DNA and supra-molecular structure of eucariotic DNA. DNA replication: General principles, mechanisms and modes of DNA replication. Replication mechanism of prokaryotic chromosomes. Replication mechanisms of various plasmid DNAs. Replication mechanism of the eucaryotic chromosomes. Replication of bacteriophage DNA genomes. Transcription of DNA: Transcription in procaryotic systems, involved structures and mechanism. Transcription of eucaryotic genes, structures and mechanism. Post-transcriptional processing of euaryotic transcripts (capping, polyadenylylation, RNA splicing). Post-transcriptional modification of transcripts, RNA editing of mitochondrial and cellular transcripts. Translation: General mechanism of translation. Translation in procaryotic systems. Translation in eucaryotic systems. Post-translational modifications of translation products. Molecular mechanisms of intercellular protein translocation. Mechanisms and systems of protein secretion. Signal transduction pathways. DNA hybridization: Principals of DNA hybridization, Cot curves. Applications of hybridization in genome analysis, prokaryotic and eucaryotic gene and genome structure. DNA Technology: Molecular cloning techniques (restriction enzymes, cloning vectors, cloning procedures). Southern and Northern transfer and hybridization. DNA sequencing. Polymerase Chain Reaction.

B) Laboratory course

A subcloning procedure: Plasmid DNA extraction, plasmid DNA restriction, diagnostic and preparative agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA extraction from agarose gels, DNA ligation, transformation of competent cells with the ligation products. Selection and screening of recombinant colonies. Verification of the recombinant nature of introduced plasmid.

Applied Ecology

Course Contents

  1. Introduction to Applied Ecology
  2. Ecosystems: Biomes, productivity, trophic chains, decomposition, biogeochemical cycles.
  3. Extinction and biodiversity loss: population dynamics of extinction, mechanisms of extinction, IUCN categories, mass extinctions, loss of habitat, restoration ecology
  4. Resource management: theories of harvesting, social aspects of conservation and resource management, tragedy of the commons
  5. Climate change: elements of climate, causes of climate change, responses of ecosystems to climate change
  6. Management of pests and invasive species

Laboratory Exercises

  1. Ecological footprint (students carry out this lab at home)
  2. The biogeochemical cycles (PC lab)
  3. Finding environmental data online (PC lab)
  4. Population dynamics using VORTEX (PC lab)
  5. Preparing presentations and seminars (PC lab)
  6. Team project (students prepare a seminar on a specified topic)

Course books

  1. Vokou, D., General Ecology, University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2009.
  2. Tyler-Miller, G., Environmental Sciences, Ion publishers 2004
  3. Lykakis, S., Ecology, Athanasopopulos-Papadamis Publishers, Athens 1996
  4. J.M. Halley, Notes for Applied Ecology, UOI Website.

Immunulogy

Theory (39 hours)

  • General properties of the Immune system
    • Natural and adaptive immunity
    • Immune cells and tissues
  • Antigens and antibodies
    • Nature of antigens, antigenic epitope, haptens and adjuvants
    • Antibodies structure and function
    • Generation of Antibody diversity, somatic recombination
    • Antigen-Antibody based assays
  • Antigen presentation
    • Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), structure and function, MHC I and MHC II.
    • T cell receptor (TCR) structure and function.
    • Antigenic presentation to the T cells (CD4+ MHC II versus CD8+ MCH I interaction), antigen processing.
  • Maturation of lymphocytes
    • Stages of lymphocyte maturation
    • Negative and positive selection
  • Activation and differentiation of T lymphocytes
    • Costimulation of T lymphocytes (2 signal hypothesis)
    • T lymphocyte subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17)
    • Differentiation of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    • Signal transduction from the TCR
  • Activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes
    • T dependent and T independent B cell responses
    • Antibody production
    • Ig class isotype recombination
    • Ig affinity maturation
  • Immune tulerance
    • Self and non-self recognition by the immune system
    • Central tulerance
    • Peripheral tulerance (regulatory T cells, anergy, apoptosis)
    • Homeostasis in the immune system
  • Effector mechanisms of Cellular Immunity
    • Effector CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, mechanisms of action
    • DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity
    • Activation of macrophages by T lymphocytes
    • NK cells, rule and mechanisms of action
  • Effector mechanisms of Humoral Immunity
    • Antibody mediated Opsonization and phagocytosis
    • ADCC, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
    • The Complement system, rule and mechanisms of activation
  • Memory B and T cells
  • Natural immunity
    • Phagocytes and inflammatory responses
    • Recognition of antigen by Tull-like receptors (TLR)
    • NK cells, rule and mechanisms of action
  • Clinical Immunulogy
    • Immune Response against infectious agents.
    • Vaccines.
    • Autoimmunity.
    • Allergy, hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Immunodeficiencies.
    • Immunity and Transplantation

Laboratory (21 hours)

  • Lab 1-2: FACS
  • Lab 3-4: ELISA
  • Lab 5-7: Western Blot

Textbooks

  • Cellular and Mulecular Immunulogy. A.K. Abbas, A.H. Lichtman and S. Pillai, 2007, 6th edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, USA