Courses > Semester 2

Biology II

Lesson Contents

  • The Classification of the living organisms (The principles of classification, Methology of systematics, Methodology of systematics - Taxonomy orders)
    • Protists
    • Fungi
    • Plants (Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Seed plants)
    • Animal phylogenesis: Porifera - Cnidaria - Platyhelminthes - Annelida - Molluscs - Arthropods - Echinoderma - Fish - Amphibia - Reptiles - Birds - Mammals
  • Ecology: Communities, ecosystems and biosphere - Terrestrial ecosystems: characteristics, climate, soil and biota - Aquatic ecosystems: ponds and lakes, streams, estuaries, marine ecosystems

Laboratory exercises

  1. Structure and function of eukaryotic cell membranes. Osmosis and cell membrane permeability.
  2. Cellular compartmentalization. Microscopic observation intracellular organelles of eukaryotes. Isolation of chloroplasts.
  3. Protein extraction from muscle tissue and liver of fish.
  4. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis. Protein gel staining and destaining.
  5. Desing of the standard curve. Identification of cytoskeleton (actin, myosin).
  6. After ptotein electrophoresis standards of proteins as indicators of phylogenetics Construction of a phylogenetic tree.
  7. Cell cycle, cell division, mitosis. Microscopic observation of mitotic cells, Identification of the mitosis phases.
  8. Meiosis cell division. Formation of gametes. Microscopic observation in lily anthers.
  9. Evolution of life, Study of fossils.

Educational Books


  • Biology, E. Zifa, Z. Mamuris, K.A. Moutou, University of Thessaly Press, 2008 (in Greek)
  • Biology, N.A. Campbell & J.B. Reece, 8th edition, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2007.
  • Biology, P.H. Raven, G.B. Johnston, J.B. Losos, K.A. Mason & S.R. Singer 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2008.
  • Life, The Science of Biology, W.K. Purves, D.Sadava, G.Orians & C. Heller, 7th edition, Sinauer Associates, 2003.
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell, B. Alberts et. al., 5th edition, Garland Science


  • Laboratory Exercises in Biology, K. Vareli, I. Sainis and Th. Traga, University of Ioannina Press.

Organic Chemistry II: Carbonyl compounds and biomolecules

  1. Carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, ketones carboxylic acids and derivatives (anhydrides, chlorides, amides, esters). Carbonic acids and derivatives (urea, phosgene, etc)
  2. Reactions of carbonyl compounds
    • With alcohols to hemiacetals and acetals
    • With amines to Schiff bases and enamines
    • With acidic hydrogen atom (methylene-compound)
    • With nitrous acid to diazonium salts and organic colours
    • Esterification
    • Knoevenagel reaction
    • Cannizzaro reaction
    • Grignard reaction
    • Heteroanalogous carbonyl compounds
  3. Amino acids, chemical and physical properties, protection of the amino and carboxylic group. Peptide synthesis in liquid phase (mechanism). Peptide synthesis in solid phase (Merrifield reaction)
  4. Sugars (monosaccharides, disaccharides, cyclic configuration of sugars, epimeric and anomeric sugars, α-and β- saccharides). Reactions of sugars. Polysaccharides.
  5. Fatty acids and lipids
  6. Heterocyclic compounds with 2 and 3 nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen atoms


Descriptive statistics. Theoretical and sampling distributions. Estimation: point estimation, confidence intervals. One and two sample hypothesis testing. Simple linear regression and correlation. One factor analysis of variance. Chi-square goodness of fit. Contingency tables. Some nonparametric statistical methods.



General Microbiology - Introduction to Microbiology. Principles of Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, Protozooogy, Helminthology. Principles of Food Microbiology, Water Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Plant Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology. Microbial Pathogenesis, Emerging Diseases.


Practicals in Bacteriology (stains, isoloation-cultures, identification), Mycology (stains, isolation-cultures, identification), Parasitology (stains, isolation-cultures, identification), Virology (stains, isolation cell-cultures, identification). Food-water microbiology techniques. Molecular techniques.

Analytical Chemistry